Above: Original Jacob Dickert "Pennsylvania" Rifle
One of the finest books on original traditional American flintlock patched round ball rifles ever compiled was "Thoughts on the Kentucky Rifle in its Goldern Age", by Joe Kindig - published in 1960. The book's 561 pages are richly illustrated with photos of hundreds of original rifles from the 1700's and early 1800's - with each of those rifles thoroughly examined and described by the author. For years, that book was one of my prized research publications, until I loaned it to a dear friend. Both the book and the friend disappeared.
Joe Kindig is shown at left, surrounded by his "Kentucky Rifles". One thing that must have intrigued him as much as it has me was the wide range of bore sizes found in these hand-made rifles. Arms historians often proclaim that a "typical" Kentucky rifle bore was .45 caliber. Well, going through Kindig's book, which surely represented a great part of his life's work, if there is one thing one will readily realize it is that ... "There was no such thing as a typical bore size!"
Back when I first began to write about muzzleloading guns, I could not absorb enough information. When I worked at Dixie Gun Works, during the early 1970's, I would thumb through Kindig's book (and an original copy of Ned Roberts' book, "The Muzzle-Loading Cap Lock Rifle") to learn more - and was amazed at the variety of bore-sizes found in American muzzleloading rifles from about 1750 to 1850. That was due to these rifles being truly "HAND MADE" ... including the barrel - which was typically hand forged ... then hand drilled ... hand polished ... and hand rifled - using a simple wooden boring and rifling "machine" ... that was hand operated. The "bore size" ended up being what it was, following all the work it took to get as perfect a round hole from one end to the other as possible ... boring and polishing until the interior surface was slick and smooth ... then meticulously hand cutting those spiraling grooves which made the American long rifles renown for their accuracy.
Thanks to a fellow by the name of Eli Whitney, by the early 1800's, we began to see some standardization in arms making in this country ... including bore sizes. Did you know that Remington's first commercial foray into arms making was to produce high quality barrels for gun makers ... barrels that were consistent from barrel to barrel? As American shooters took more and more to the precision long-range bullet shooting rifles of the 1840's and 1850's, bore sizes became even more standard - and barrels were being made to closer established tolerances ... and more precise bore sizes.
Still, many backwoods gun makers continued to make barrels the same as this country's first gun makers of the 1700's - one at a time, with a bore that pretty much ended up as it ended up. Using a mandrel to hammer forge around, those barrels started out with something of a "caliber" in mind ... but by the time that barrel was bored, polished and rifled ... that caliber could have been off a bit ... which would explain all those .42 through .47 caliber original guns which are featured in Kindig's book. Fact is, once a customer's rifle was completed, the actual bore size was determined ... THEN a round ball mould was cut to produce the proper size soft lead ball for THAT muzzleloading rifle.
In those days, a man's rifle was just that ... that man's rifle - and could be the ONLY rifle he owned his entire life. Some of those guns were shot a lot over 30 or 40 years of service, and the softer iron used for making those barrels likely tended to wear more easily than later steel barrels. Once the rifling was worn to where it could no longer spin the ball adequately for great accuracy, it was a common practice to have a barrel reamed, polished and re-rifled to a larger caliber. A rifle which started out as a .43 caliber in, say, 1760 ... could still be providing protection from hostile enemies and putting meat on the table as a .46 or .47 caliber by 1820 or 1830. Some speculate, that with the move west during the 1840's and 1850's, quite a few rifle bores were purposely enlarged to a bigger caliber to better take the larger game those early pioneers would encounter.
Why A .40 Or .45 Caliber These Days?
When Turner Kirkland, of Dixie Gun Woks, set out to have an armsmaker in Belgium produce the first modern reproduction muzzleloading rifles back in the early 1950's, he studied the bores of the more than 100 original "Kentucky" styled rifles in his collection ... and determined that the average bore size of those rifles was right at .40 caliber. So...that's the caliber he went with ... and the rifle was named the Dixie "Squirrel Rifle". So why did those rifle makers 200 years ago produce long-barreled rifles is such a small caliber?
Keep in mind, back in the mid to late 1700's ... Kentucky and parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio were "The Wilderness". Anyone settling that country was far from supplies of black powder and lead - which were closely guarded. It was purely a case of economics ... a case of "supply and demand". Powder and lead were necessities ... not to be squandered. That's also why those old Kentucky rifles had such long 40 to 44 inch barrels ... to squeeze out every bit of power that a 40 ... 50 ... 60 grain charge of black powder could muster.
Due to the demands from shooters, who wanted to take deer with the rifle, Dixie changed the caliber of those early reproduction rifles to .45 in the mid 1960's.
There are still a couple of .40 caliber round ball reproductions available. Unless someone is simply looking for a short range target rifle, I have to ask myself ... why? In most states, rifles with a bore that size cannot be used to hunt deer. Loaded with a patched round ball, they just don't generate enough energy for a clean kill. A 60-grain charge of FFFg black powder is a "hefty" load for a .40 caliber patched ball muzzleloader, like the Dixie Gun Works/Pedersoli "Cub" Kentucky rifle that's currently available. Out of the rifle's 28-inch barrel, that charge will get a 93-grain patched .395" diameter ball out of the muzzle at a fairly impressive 1,912 f.p.s. But, due to the light weight of that soft lead ball, it generates JUST 754 foot-pounds of energy ... AT THE MUZZLE. Keep in mind that 800 f.p.e. is considered MINIMUM for taking deer sized game - and that's at the distance of the target, not at the muzzle.
Original 1770's Small Bore Kentuckiy Rifle
In reality, the .45 caliber patched round ball rifles don't fare much better on game the size of deer. One of my old friends built a very nice copy of a rifle similar to that shown directly above, using a 42-inch Green Mountain .45 caliber barrel. The rifle is a tack driver with 80-grains of FFFg GOEX black powder and a tightly patched 133-grain .445" swaged lead ball. At the muzzle of the long and light 13/16" diameter barrel, the load is good for 2,144 f.p.s. - with 1,357 foot-pounds of muzzle energy.
When working with traditional rifle ballistics, most round ball shooters never consider factoring in the "ballistic coefficient" of a round ball, but it does still come into play. A .445" diameter sphere of lead has a b.c. of just .063. Even at the high muzzle velocity of my friend's load, velocity drops to only about 1,550 f.p.s. at 50 yards - where that ball hits with a not-so-whopping 709 f.p.e. At 60 yards, velocity is down to around 1,400 f.p.s., with only about 580 f.p.e. remaining. In all reality, my friend's custom .45 rifle and load is a 40-yard deer rifle, where the ball is still flying at about 1,675 f.p.s. - and will hit a deer with around 825 f.p.e.
The .50's and .54's...
The movie "Jeremiah Johnson" did a heck of a job promoting the .50 caliber Hawken rifle as a tremendous game taking powerhouse. In reality, with a patched .490" or .495" round ball, and 90- or 100-grain FFg black powder charge to get a 178- to 181-grain ball out of the muzzle with enough velocity to be effective on game ... patched round ball rifles of .50 caliber add about 15 or so yards of effective range over a .45 rifle.
When I built the above rifle back in 1983, I originally built it for shooting with the interchangeable barrels that Green Mountian Rifle Barrel Co. offered for the T/C Hawken ... and at that time one of my favorite barrels was a 32-inch 1-in-66 twist patched round ball barrel - which I used mostly for shooting in a few local matches. I also used that barrel for some of my hunting - stoking it with 100 grains of FFg GOEX powder behind a patched 181-grain .495" diameter swaged lead ball. At the muzzle, the load was good for 1,958 f.p.s. - and 1,542 f.p.e. That ball has a .070 b.c. - and at 50 yards this load has it still flying at 1,452 f.p.s., with 845 f.p.e. The load will retain right at 800 f.p.e. at 55 yards - which I always respected as my "maximum effective range" with the rifle and load.
Like those who moved "West" in the 1800's, I too felt the need to move up to a larger bore patched round ball rifle once I got settled in Western Montana nearly ten years ago. The rifle shown above is now my "serious" patched round ball big game muzzleloader - the .54 caliber Rocky Mountain Hawken from Davide Pedersoli & Co. Like the original this rifle nicely copies, this hefty built percussion half-stock has been made to consume heavy powder charges.
My favored load tends to be 120-grains of GOEX FFg behind a patched Hornady .535" diameter 230-grain swaged lead ball. At the muzzle of the 34 3/4-inch long heavy 1-inch diameter octagon barrel, the load is good for 1,889 f.p.s., with 1,861 f.p.e. At 50 yards, the load maintains 1,446 f.p.s. - and 1,088 f.p.e. Out at 75 yards, that big swagged lead ball is still moving along at 1,266 f.p.s. - and will hit a whitetail or similar sized game with 834 foot-pounds of knockdown power.
If you are serious about hunting with a patched round ball muzzleloader ... and truly want to be able to take game out past 50 yards ... never forget, if you want more range and more knockdown power ... it's going to take more powder and more lead. It's as simple as that! - Toby Bridges
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NORTH AMERICAN MUZZLELOADER HUNTING host Toby Bridges shares a few of his more memorable hunts with traditional muzzleloaders - using guns that are no longer available. The article also takes a look at some great reproduction rifles which have gone by the wayside...and kind of mourns their loss. Here's a link to that article ...
Take in what this article shares, then please come back to this post and use the comment section to share your most memorable muzzleloader hunt with a traditionally styled rifle or shotgun - and why the muzzleloader used was your favorite or one of your favorites.
Click On Photos To Enlarge
Pedersoli .50 Missouri River Hawken - With 1-in-24 Twist Bullet Barrel
Pedersoli .54 Rocky Mountain Hawken - With 1-in-65 Twist Round Ball Barrel
In my honest opinion...the two finest modern copies of the so-called "Hawken Style" rifles ever offered for today's traditional muzzleloading rifleman are the two rifles shown directly above - the Missouri River Hawken and the Rocky Mountain Hawken. Both are produced by Davide Pedersoli & Co., of Brescia, Italy. These are the two traditionally styled rifles I tend to shoot the most these days. BOTH are capable of exceptional accuracy...and...EACH fills a specific niche for me.
The company offers the 30-inch barreled Missouri River Hawken in choice of .45 or .50 caliber. The .45 model features a moderately slow 1-in-47 rate of rifling twist, with .009" deep grooves. It has been designed for shooting a patched round ball. The .50 caliber Missouri River Hawken is an entirely different beast. The rifle in this caliber features a much faster 1-in-24 rate of rifling twist, with shallow .004" deep grooves. The .50 caliber version of this model is definitely a true bore-size conical bullet rifle. On the other hand, the 34 3/4-inch barreled Rocky Mountain Hawken comes in .54 caliber only - with a slow 1-in-65 rate of rifling twist with deep .011" grooves. This is definitely a patched round ball rifle.
The workmanship that goes into crafting these two different Hawken models in no way takes a back seat to any other Hawken ever built - in the past or today! In fact, when it comes to fit and finish...and to the quality of component parts used ... the Pedersoli Hawken rifles shown here will challenge the finest custom-built Hawken rifles with price tags easily two to three times the cost of these two exquisite "production" rifles.
Over the years, I have had the opportunity to handle and examine a number of the original rifles built by Sam & Jake Hawken. I grew up just 30 miles from where the St. Louis Hawken rifles were built - and I actually once owned and used an original lighter .44 Hawken "Local Rifle" to take a whitetail doe. Perhaps it was that hunt, 45 years ago, which resulted in my high esteem for rifles of Hawken design.
I've had the .50 bullet shooting Missouri River Hawken shown here for about 9 years, and have likely put close to a thousand rounds through it ... and the rifle has shot very well with a number of bore-sized conical bullets ... and it also shoots very well with saboted bullets. This would be the ideal rifle for the muzzleloading hunter looking for old style looks ... but which is capable of modern performance. Here are links to a couple of articles on loading and shooting this rifle -
Shooting A Traditional Lead Conical Bullet...
Shooting A Modern Saboted Bullet...
If you are looking for a true round ball rifle that can be stoked up for the hardest hitting load possible with a patched round ball ... the .54 caliber Rocky Mountain Hawken is definitely the rifle for you. With the longer barrel, this rifle weighs in at just an ounce or two shy of 10 pounds.
This hefty built half-stock can be stoked with 120-grains of GOEX FFg black powder, behind either a patched .530" or .535" ball, and recoil is still very tolerable. I've shot both diameter balls out of this rifle - using lubed .020" thick cotton patching with the .530" ball and .018" thick patching with the .535" ball. And, quite honestly, there's not a world of difference in the way they loaded ... or shot. Here's a link to an article on building a load for the .54 Rocky Mountain Hawken...and how the rifle and load performed on that giant whitetail doe shown in the above right photo -
Earlier this fall, I had taken both the .50 Missouri River Hawken and the .54 Rocky Mountain Hawken with me to the range - to tweak how they were sighted for the fast approaching big game seasons. That was the first time I had shot both rifles during the same range session...and likewise the first time I had broken them down for cleaning at the same time. Both models are built with heavy 1-inch diameter barrels. With both stock assemblies...and both barrels...laying there on my cleaning table, I couldn't resist the urge to check if the barrels could be swapped back and forth.
Well, Davide Pedersoli's manufacturing for these rifles is so precise...the barrels fit either stock assembly like a glove. The photo directly above shows the .50 caliber Missouri River Hawken barrel in the stock assembly of the .54 Rocky Mountain Hawken. Since the company offers either version in choice of walnut or curly maple, I kind of figured the stocks/barrels would be interchangeable.
So...if (or more like when) you see the longer open sighted .54 barrel with the walnut stock...or the shorter, and Hi-Lux Malcolm scoped, .50 caliber barrel on the maple stock, know that we did not get two new rifles - we're just utilizing the interchageability of the stocks and barrels. Which brings up a question...
We're curious ... "If you had just one choice of barrel and stock ...would it be the .50 caliber bullet shooting barrel with the walnut or curly maple stock...or the .54 patched round ball barrel with either the curly maple or walnut stock?" - Toby Bridges
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The above photo is from the muzzleloading classic book "THE MUZZLE-LOADING CAP LOCK RIFLE" by Ned Roberts. See that short barreled Billinghurst "Buggy Rifle" in the upper left-hand side of the photo? Well, the very first shots I ever took with a muzzleloader were with an original mid 1800's rifle not all that different than the one shown here. The rifle was indeed a Billinghurst rifle, of .31 caliber, and it was topped with an early "telescopic rifle sight" (a.k.a. rifle scope). Whether the scope was made by Billinghurst or Wm. Malcolm, that I don't remember.
It was late spring of 1962. A farmer who was a friend of the family had been complaining about too many groundhogs playing havoc with his hay fields, and invited me to come out and shoot a few with my newly acquired Marlin .22 lever-action Model 39. I rode my bicycle the three miles to his farm, with that nearly new .22 strapped across my back, and when I rode into the farm yard, two men I didn't know were there, and they were preparing to load and shoot one of the Billinghurst rifles, of .31 caliber. I was intrigued by the old rifle, and after they had shot it a few times, the owner asked it I wanted to take a few shots. He instructed me how to load the rifle, and I remember taking five or six shots - hitting a tin can out at about 50 yards with every shot.
The men were there to work on a tractor, and were taking a coffee break. I asked the rifle owner if I could slip down to a nearby valley hay field and try to shoot a groundhog with the rifle. He agreed to let me...but without him there to oversee my reloading of the rifle...I would have just the one shot.
As I eased down the dirt farm road leading to the lower hay field, I spotted three chucks out feeding...and immediately went into "sneak mode". Ten minutes later, I was crawling up to a wooden gate. The barrel of the old Billinghurst .31 caliber underhammer was slipped between two of the boards, with the heavy barrel rested on the lower board. I had no problem finding the closest chuck in the crosshairs. The clover munching varmint was about 45 yards away. I reached down and cocked the hammer, looking to make sure the cap was still on the nipple...then refined my hold on the groundhog. My finger tightened on the trigger...the hefty little rifle barked...and that chuck dropped out of sight. I had just taken my very first muzzleloader game.
That first muzzleloading memory took place about a month before my 13th birthday. I can vividly remember shooting that rifle...loading the rifle several times...and making my very first muzzleloader taken shot on game with that rifle. I also remember the owner of the rifle telling me that it was a .31 caliber Billinghurst rifle. Little did I realize at that moment just how important muzzleloading would become to me, and to my personal pursuit of happiness on down the road.
Now, here I am, some 54 springs later in life. What's ironic is that this spring I began shooting with the short full-stock rifle shown in the photo directly above...a little .31 caliber percussion rifle - built with a 160 to 170 year old original barrel. But... That's not an early style scope on the rifle. It's a type of sight that predates the earliest telescopic rifle sights by 50 or more years. It is a tube sight, which is probably best described as a fully encased "peep" sight.
I got the nuzzleloader from an older friend, who built it a couple of years ago. It was the lure of shooting with the tube sight which drew me to the "odd ball" .31 caliber muzzleloader. I had only shot with such a sight once before in my life...and had never owned one. However, even after I acquired the rifle, one thing kept me from getting out and shooting it for almost a year - and that was that no one offered a .300" diameter ball for loading and shooting out of a muzzleloader. Or, for that matter, a ball mould for casting a ball of that diameter.
Or...So I Thought! That was until I began playing around with the thought of building some "buckshot" loads for one of the Pedersoli flintlock 12 gauge Mortimer shotguns. And...there it was...in the Ballistic Products Inc. catalog...a listing for .300" diameter (No. 1) Buckshot)! Living a lifetime of shooting larger bore .50 caliber rifles and loads, one often forgets just how small a .300" diameter ball really is...and how little it weighs. The above left photo shows one of the No. 1 Buck spheres...which weighs 40.6 grains.
I had nearly forgotten just how enjoyable it is to shoot a truly accurate small-bore small-game rifle such as this. Shooting just 15 grains of FFFg Olde Eynsford black powder (a premium grade of powder from GOEX), this hand-built rifle and home-made tube sight surprised me with its outstanding accuracy. That half-inch cluster shown in the photo at right is a typical 25-yard target with the rig - and it shot about as well at 50 yards.
My range is located in the valley of a Western Montana hay field, which was just cut and baled this past week. While it may be several thousand miles from where I took my first muzzleloader game 54 years ago, the next valley over is loaded with pesky ground squirrels - and I have a feeling that this coming week I just may have to get in some small varmint shooting ... some very small varmint shooting ... with this .31 caliber small bore muzzleloader.
For more on loading and shooting this small-bore muzzleloader ... and a look at what makes a small caliber muzzleloader ideal for hunting small game, go to this link...
How well do you remember your first shots with a muzzleloader ... or your first muzzleloader ... and the first game you ever took with a muzzleloader? Please share those memories in the following comment section. - Toby Bridges
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Traditions .50 Caliber Hawken Woodsman
I bought my very first percussion .45 Dixie Gun Works "Kentucky" rifle a couple of months before my 15th birthday, back in 1965. The rifle had originally been a .40 caliber, but the owner had replaced the Belgium-made barrel with a .45 caliber Douglas octagon barrel, and that rifle proved to be a tack driver. Shooting 70-grains of FFFg black powder (DuPont) behind a pillow-ticking patched 128-grain cast soft lead ball, I could consistently hit a tin can at 50 to 70 yards. I took my first muzzleloader buck that fall with the rifle in Missouri...and a week later took my second muzzleloader buck with the rifle in Illinois.
The "like new" rifle, .440" ball mould, lead melting pot, a couple of pounds of DuPont black powder, a yard or so of pillow ticking, a powder flask, a half-dozen other loading accessories, and 500 imported Italian No. 11 percussion caps had cost me $125. While that may sound ridiculously low, you have to keep in mind that back then you could buy a brand new, in the box, Remington Model 700 bolt-action center-fire rifle for $97.50.
Getting into traditional muzzleloading today can be an extremely expensive venture. One of the upper end, very authentically styled "Hawken" rifles offered by the Davide Pedersoli company can easily set you back $1,000 to $1,500. And to amass all of the loading components and accessories for loading and cleaning such a rifle can easily add another $200. But, this isn't to say that if you shop around, you can't enjoy traditional muzzleloading for a more reasonable $400 to $500 start up cost - especially if you can find a good used rifle in excellent shooting condition.
The slick little half-stock rifle shown at the top of this post is the .50 caliber Traditions "Hawken Woodsman" - which retails for a much more reasonable $479 for the percussion model (shown), $519 for the flintlock model. These are Traditions' suggested retail prices. The muzzleloading fancier willing to shop around, can find the percussion model for just under $400, and the flint model for a few dollars over $400.
Back when I bought my first .45 muzzleloader, 51 years ago last month (April 2016), a 1-pound can of black powder cost all of $4 to $5 a pound (depending on who made it)...and a hundred of those .440" diameter balls for the rifle could be bought for about $4 as well ... and a tin of 100 No. 11 caps cost about $1.50. Back then, I didn't know of anyone who used "pre-cut" patching, all simply used good ol' pillow ticking...which could be bought for less than $1 a yard (that would easily patch 200+ of those round balls).
Even if a shooter bought cast balls (swaged balls were not available then), a .45 caliber rifle shooting 70-grains of black powder, could be loaded and shot for about 10-cents per shot. A .50 caliber, shooting a heavier .490-.495" ball and a heavier 80-grain charge of black powder, could be shot for 12- to 14-cents per shot. By casting my own lead balls, I could actually shoot my first muzzleloader for about 6- or 7-cents a shot!
TODAY...LEAD ROUND BALLS FOR .45 OR .50 CALIBER PATCHED BALL RIFLES EACH SELL FOR ABOUT WHAT THE ENTIRE LOAD COST BACK THEN!
The Dixie Gun Works' 2016 catalog lists cast pure-lead .440" round balls for $16.75 per hundred, for 16 3/4-cents per shot, and swaged .440" Hornady round balls for $14.25 per hundred, or 14 1/4-cents per shot. A .490"/.495" swaged ball works out to right at 18-cents per shot...and .530"/.535" swaged balls will set you back 21-/22-cents per shot. Even the tiny .310" swaged ball for a .32 caliber rifle will cost you 12 3/4-cents per shot. And if you look to load with pre-cut, pre-lubed patches, that will add right at 9-cents to the "per-shot" cost of loading and shooting a patched round ball.
GOEX black powder typically retails for around $20 per pound. If you load and shoot 70 grains, for 100-shots per pound, that works out to 20-cents a shot. If you load and shoot heavier charges, the cost per shot will cost you even more. An 80-grain charge (87.5 shots per pound) will cost almost 23-cents per shot. A 90-grain charge (77.7 shots per pound) works out to almost 26-cents per shot. And a 100-grain charge (70 shots per pound) will run a shooter 28.5 cents per shot.
The cost of No. 11 percussion caps have really escalated over the past ten years. I use almost exclusiely the CCI No. 11 Magnum caps, which retail for $6.95 per 100...adding another 7-cents per shot to the cost of shooting a traditional percussion rifle. So, as you can see, for a typical load for a .50 caliber patched round ball...loading 80-grains of black powder...a swaged .490" lead ball...using a lubed pre-cut patch...and a CCI No. 11 Magnum cap means that each and every shot will cost you 57-cents.
If you already have a lead melting pot and a round ball mould for your rifle, along with a cheap supply of good soft scrap lead...and rely on loading with pillow ticking patching, you can actually cut the cost per shot of loading a traditional patched round ball rifle by as much as 20-cents per shot (depending on rifle caliber). However, if you have to buy a lead melting furnace ($60 to $100) and a round ball mould ($30 to $100+) - you'll have to to do a lot of shooting to save enough to cover the cost of the equipment.
Before mid-June, we'll bring you a "First Look" at the Traditions .50 caliber "Hawken Woodsman"...and how well it shoots with pre-cut patches and Hornady .490" and .495" swaged round ball loads, shooting GOEX black powder. Then, before the end of June we'll also publish a piece on how to save $$$ by loading patched swaged .490" diameter buckshot using pillow ticking patching trimmed at the muzzle...and how those loads compare performance wise with the pre-cut patched commercially swaged balls. Watch for that article/report - which will be titled "The Cost Of Convenience". - Toby Bridges
Shooting A 150 To 160 Year Old Original English Fowler
Couldn't help but using that pun in the headline or title for this post. But...that's kind of how I felt as I loaded and shot a circa 1860's original Joseph Bourne, Birmingham, England, percussion single barrel shotgun, or "fowler" as they were commonly referred to back in those days, for very likely the first time in more than a hundred or more years. But...I'm getting ahead of myself just a little.
The opportunity to even handle and examine the well built old smoothbore came about when I invited Glenn May and Andrew Mason, both talented gunsmiths and gun makers with Cooper Firearms of Montana (of Stevensville, MT) to do some shooting with me. Both love old guns...or modern copies of old guns...and jumped at the opportunity to take me up on that invitation.
Glenn has been a loyal follower of the NORTH AMERICAN MUZZLELOADER HUNTING web site for several years, and had been wanting to do some shooting with the Pedersoli modern copy of a pre-1800's Mortimer flintlock 12-gauge fowler I planned to use for my Montana turkey hunting this spring. In fact, he had become so intrigued at hunting turkeys with a muzzleloading shotgun that he had acquired one of his own .... the mentioned original Bourne single barrel. He had spent some time cleaning up the old gun...and checking to make sure the Damascus twist steel barrel was solid enough to be shot...and wanted me to help him work up a load for the gun.
I've always had a special place in my heart for fine original muzzleloading shotguns, and looked forward to seeing what kind of performance we could get out of the old Bourne single ... so told Glenn to bring it along.
The shotgun seemed to be something of a "loose 10 gauge"...or a "tight 9 gauge". I checked the bore by slipping one of the Ballistic Product Inc. one-piece plastic 10-gauge TPS wads onto my little finger...then easing it about half way into the bore. I could feel the wad making contact with the walls of the bore. But for my first shot with the old percussion single, I decided to try something else first.
The hefty built shotgun weighed in at around 9 1/2 to 10 pounds, with a fairly hefty barrel, especially at the breech end. To play it safe, I went with a "light" load. In fact, I went with basically the same 90-grain charge of Olde Eynsford FFg black powder I shoot out of the pound or so lighter Pederoli-Mortimer 12 gauge flintlock. Directly over the powder charge, I "dropped" in one of the BPI .125" thick heavy 10-gauge Nitro Card Wads. (The card wad did make light contact with the walls of the bore, and it took very little, if any, effort to push the card down on top of the powder charge.) Then, I pulled apart one of the 1/2-inch thick BPI 10-gauge fiber cushion wads, separating it into 5 thinner fiber wafers...and tamped that down on top of the card wad. A .030" thick card over-shot wad was ramrodded over the top of the cushion wad...and two ounces of No. 5 lead shot poured in.
I knew a 10-gauge .030" thick over-shot card wad would fit a bit too loosely to reliably keep the shot from rolling forward and out the muzzle...so instead I simply rolled up a small bit of toilet tissue...shoved it down the bore...and lightly tamped it into a very effective "over-shot" wad. Shooting off of sandbags from the bench, at about 20 yards, I was extremely pleased when the nearly 160-year old shotgun produced the above left pattern ... with the first shot that had likely been fired out of it in a hundred or so years. So were Glenn and Andrew.
The two wanted to try their hand at loading the muzzleloading big bore - so I walked them through the process I had used. Shooting from the sandbags of my old shooting bench, they had no problem duplicating the pattern I had gotten with the first shot out of the Bourne single. Both took turns loading and shooting the shotgun another seven or eight times.
Repeatedly, the two punched patterns on paper that would have absolutely no problem of taking an adult wild turkey tom at 25 yards... maybe a bit farther. Glenn had seen how one of the BPI one-piece plastic 12 gauge TPS wads, with four cup length slits (to form four sleeves), had tightened the patterns of the Pedersoli flintlock 12-gauge I'll be hunting turkeys with this spring...and jumped at the chance to load the old Bourne single with the same powder and shot charges - but using just the sleeved 10-gauge TPS wad ... with a bit of toilet paper tamped over the top to form an over-shot wad.
Well...as you can see from the two photos directly above ... Glenn now has himself one turkey getting muzzleloading shotgun...and a load that should put any wild turkey gobbler on the ground...out to 30 yards! And...that's pretty amazing from a shotgun with a cylinder bore barrel.
Before fall, I may borrow this shotgun for a week or so and get in a little more shooting with the gun ... and some photography as well. Since it now belongs to a good friend, rest assured...you will very likely see more of it on this website. For a look at my loading and shooting of the Pedersoli reproduction of a circa 1790 Mortimer flintlock shotgun...just go to the following link. - Toby Bridges
For More On The Pedersoli Flintlock 12 Gauge Mortimer...Click On Above Photo
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Mastering A Flintlock Shotgun
One of the muzzleloaders I truly hope to have the opportunity to work with and to hunt with through 2016 would be the superb Davide Pedersoli & Co. reproduction of the English flintlock Mortimer 12-gauge shotgun shown above. In my opinion, this 36-inch barreled smoothbore is one of the absolute finest modern made copies of a classic late 1700's flintlock ever offered.
I have never shot one of the Mortimer cylinder-bore "scatterguns"... but I have handled them several times at the annual SHOT Show - and the feel of this gun is great. The shotgun has wonderful balance, and the 9-pound smoothbore comes up nicely. When my cheek hits the relatively straight comb of the shotgun butt, the bead tends to be exactly where it needs to be. Getting off a fast shot with this flintlock should be absolutely no problem - and the key to taking game with an open-bore flintlock smoothbore is to shoot fast...and close!
I've only hunted with a couple of flintlock smoothbores, one being the 12-gauge Indian Trade Gun in the photo at left. This particular new-made flinter just happened to be the very first of the Trade Guns produced by my old friend Curly Gostomski, of North Star Enterprises. He had lost the gun in a trade years earlier, and when I was able to relocate it...and trade for it...I gave it back to Curly, at the Friendship, Indiana NMLRA matches, as a present on his birthday.
Loading the big smoothbore pretty much the same as I loaded an original and a reproduction Pedersoli built 12-gauge percussion muzzleloading shotguns I also shot at that time, I managed to take a couple of wild turkey gobblers with the big flintlock - before getting it back to the man who had built it. Those gobblers were taken at well inside of 20 yards.
I was the "caretaker" of North Star Indian Trade Gun No. 1 for a little more than two years prior to giving it back to Curly. Before letting the big flintlock go, I played around with shooting a patched round ball out of the smoothbore...and found that I could "kind of" keep hits at 50 yards within 5 inches of point of aim - anyway "good enuff" to encourage me to try taking a deer with it. Several months after acquiring the Trade Gun, I managed to take the spike buck shown at right - at 30 yards.
While I did miss the gun after presenting it to Curly...I felt good about where it went.
If I do manage to get my hands on one of the very stylish Pedersoli reproductions of a Mortimer flintlock shotgun before the end of March, an immediate goal will be to try taking a spring gobbler with the smoothbore. Then I would begin my quest to develop a patched round ball load for the flinter, and hunt with the gun for several days this next fall to try filling one of my annual "antlerless" whitetail deer tags.
Here in Montana there are a lot more opportunities to hunt waterfowl and small/upland game, like turkeys, ducks, geese, rabbits, grouse, partridge and pheasants with a shotgun than there are opportunities to go after large game with a muzzleloading rifle. I actually miss hunting "meat for the table" with a flintlock smoothbore.
What are your thoughts? Would you enjoy reading about working up different loads for this flintlock scattergun...hunting small game with the smoothbore Mortimer...busting a big ol' gobbler at under 20 yards...taking a whitetail with one of these flintlocks...or maybe taking a few geese with the style of shotgun that would have been used by naturalist and hunter John James Audubon during the early 1800's? Heck, I haven't even shot a flintlock in more than 20 years. Just the thought of once again mastering the ol' flint-n-steel ignition system is challenge enough for me to go for it! - Toby Bridges, NORTH AMERICAN MUZZLELOADER HUNTING
This TRADITIONAL MUZZLELOADER HUNTING Post Is Brought To By...
There have been a number of major movie productions in the past which have done much to promote the popularity of certain kinds of guns. Surely most all of you reading this remember how sales of the Smith & Wesson Model 29 .44 Magnum revolver skyrocketed after the release of Dirty Harry, starring Clint Eastwood, back in 1971. That one film likely sold a hundred thousand of the revolvers.
Then, for us black powder burners, there was the movie Jeremiah Johnson, starring Robert Redford. That 1972 film taught millions of Americans that the "Hawken" was the rifle of choice among the 1840's "mountain men". And that certainly did not hurt the sales of Thompson/Center Arms new "Hawken" muzzleloader, which was brought onto the market in 1971.
Pedersoli Flintlock Indian Trade Musket
So...Have you seen the new movie "The Revenant", starring Leonardo DiCaprio playing circa 1820's fur trapper and hunter Hugh Glass? While this film does not spotlight one particular make or model of early 1800's muzzleloader, it does, in true Hollywood fashion, glamorize the rough and tumble lifestyle of that hardy breed who became known as "mountain men" - and the flintlock guns their lives depended upon.
If you have seen this movie, which has already won the Golden Globe "Best Picture" Award ... and which has been nominated for 12 Academy Awards ... what did you like or dislike about the film? What are your thoughts on the flintlock guns depicted ... and do you believe this movie could spur an all new interest in muzzleloading, especially in shooting and hunting with a flintlock?
Please use the comment section of this post to share your thoughts.
For "Our Take" On "The Revenant" Go To -
How many of you got started into muzzleloader shooting and hunting with the rifle shown here - the Thompson/Center Hawken rifle?
Originally built in .45 and .50 caliber, the rifle was introduced in 1970...and remained in production until just a few years ago. I acquired my "first" T/C Hawken back in 1971 - Serial No. 6..2...Something. The rifle had a .45 barrel on it initially, but within a couple of months I had acquired a .50 caliber barrel, also with a low serial number. Since I had gotten the rifle to hunt deer with, I gravitated to the .50 caliber barrel more than the .45. The big 370-grain .50 cailber T/C "Maxi-Ball" delivered a lot more wallop than the 240-grain .45 bullet of the same styling.
Keep in mind, back then I was fresh out of the Marine Corps - and during my stint in the service, I had repeatedly qualified as an "Expert" marksman. Leaving the Corps, I went directly to work as Associate Editor for GUN WORLD magazine, where each month I spent a great deal of time on the range test firing a wide range of firearms. Due to my interest and experience with muzzleloaders as a kid, I became, unofficially, the "Black Powder Editor" for the magazine...and handled all of the publication's coverage of muzzleloading and black powder shooting. (It was during this period when I put together my first book - Black Powder Gun Digest.)
I finally accepted that was as good as accuracy was going to get, and hunted with the .50 T/C Hawken for two seasons, taking several whitetails, a good mule deer buck, an Aoudad and a couple of wild Texas hogs. The big 370-grain "Maxi-Ball", propelled by a 90-grain charge of FFg black powder, plowed through everything except the near 400-pound Aoudad (Barbary) ram. The old (and damaged) 1973 photo above right shows that recovered slug...which still weighed 364 grains when pulled from under the hide of the sheep's opposite shoulder.
The first TRUE bullet rifle I ever had the pleasure and opportunity to shoot had been built by St. Louis gunmaker H.E. Dimick - a competitor of the Hawken brothers. The rifle was very similar to the H.E. Dimick rifle shown here. It belonged to a good friend, who shot it regularly through the 1970s. That .50 caliber rifle had a rifling twist of 1-in-22 or 1-in-24, and would keep a big 1.140" long 500-grain bullet in tight 2-inch groups at 100 yards. Propelled by an 80-grain charge of GOEX FFFg, this rifle delivered the big bullet with enough authority, and accuracy, for taking deer out to 200+ yards. In fact, my friend demonstrated that he could punch a tighter group with the old 1850's rifle and load at that distance than I could with my nearly new T/C .50 caliber Hawken and 370-grain "Maxi-Ball" at 100 yards.
The fact is, the 1-in-48 twist chosen for this muzzleloader, and other T/C muzzleloaders that followed, was not proper for either projectile - yet somewhere around 1,000,000 traditional T/C muzzleloaders were built and sold in this country over a 40-year period. What if Warren Center had gotten the rate of twist right...maybe two different rates of twist - a faster rate of twist for shooting conical bullets, a slower rate of twist for shooting the patched round ball? What if serious muzzleloading hunters looking for an effective game-taking range of greater than 50 to 75 yards had been able to group more aerodynamic 350- to 450-grain conical bullets inside of 2 inches at 100 yards?
If Thompson/Center had actually spent some time to research the fast-twist bullet shooting muzzeloading rifles of the 1840's and 1850's...and had built their Hawken to produce that kind of longer range accuracy...do you think the modern in-line rifles and saboted bullets would have taken over muzzleloading so quickly?
If you cut your muzzleloading teeth with a T/C Hawken, and especially if you continue to shoot and hunt with one of the rifles today, please share a few of your experiences - and what you settled on as the best shooting and best game-taking load. There are a few hundred thousand T/C traditional muzzleloader owners out there still looking for a super accurate big game hunting load. - Toby Bridges
For More On This Topic, Go To -
Here at NORTH AMERICAN MUZZLELOADER HUNTING we regularly hear from somewhat traditional muzzleloading hunters who want to know about shooting modern plastic saboted bullets out of a traditionally styled rifle. While they may have gravitated toward the historical looks and feel of a side-hammer rifle, they simply want to know how they can make that rifle perform more like a modern in-line rifle.
It seems the majority of those who have had such thoughts own one of the old Thompson/Center Hawken rifles, which the company proclaimed could be shot with accuracy with either a patched round ball...or a squat pure-lead conical bullet that T/C had dubbed the Maxi-Ball. According to the company, this dual projectile versatility was due to the 1 turn in 48 inches rate of twist rifling.
Through the 1970's and 1980's, I've owned...shot...and hunted with a half-dozen different T/C Hawken rifles - one a .45 caliber, the others all .50 caliber. To be honest, not one of those rifles shot "great" with either projectile. Several of the .50 caliber rifles did produce acceptable accuracy with one of the 370-grain Maxi-Ball conicals...but would not shoot a patched round ball with any degree of accuracy. Just the opposite was true of several other of the .50 caliber T/C Hawken rifles.
The fact is, a 1-in-48 inches rifling twist is way too slow to get optimum accuracy with a bullet that is longer than it is in diameter...and that rate of twist is too fast for optimum accuracy with a patched round ball. And that pretty much covers that. Likewise, that rate of twist is not conducive to accuracy with modern saboted bullets.
Now, the percussion Missouri River Hawken shown here, produced by Davide Pedersoli & Co., is a different story. This is a true bullet shooting .50 caliber traditionally styled rifle (shown here with an 1850's style telescopic rifle sight - from Hi-Lux Optics). This rifle is built with a 1 turn in 24 inches rate of rifling twist. This is not a patched round ball rifle. That's not to say that you couldn't get decent accuracy with it at 25 yards, shooting light 30 or 40 grain charges of black powder. But, that rate of rifling twist is way too fast for shooting 80 to 90 grain hunting charges with a patched ball. Best accuracy with a patched ball .50 caliber rifle requires a rifling twist of 1-in-60 to 72 inches.
When it comes to "traditional projectiles", what this rifle shoots best is a heavy elongated conical pure lead bullet. My favorite is a cast 480-grain bullet that comes from the mold fitting the bore just loose enough that I can paper patch the big slug - and with a 80- or 90-grain charge of GOEX FFg black powder, I have shot some 100 and 200 yard groups that many in-line rifle and saboted bullet shooters would be proud to claim. (Keep in mind, most of the modern in-line muzzleloaders come with a 1-in-28 twist...and some have been built with a 1-in-24 twist...the same twist as found in this rifle.)
For more on loading and shooting the fast-twist bullet shooting Missouri River Hawken with a traditional 1840-1850's bullet design, go to the following link -
When I first started shooting this rifle back in late summer 2007, I really did not have a great supply of proper bore-sized conical bullets - but did play around with it enough that I was confident I would get it to shoot with exceptional accuracy. That fall, I decided to experiment and see how well the 1-in-24 twist bore would shoot with the saboted bullet shown above - the 300-grain Scorpion PT Gold from Harvester Muzzleloading.
My first shooting sessions, shooting 90-grains of GOEX FFFg black powder encouraged me to mount the long Hi-Lux Optics 1850's style 6x William Malcolm scope on the rifle. Before installing the period correct "telescopic rifle sight", I had hunted with the open sights of the Missouri River Hawken, taking a big doe at about 60-yards with a well placed 300-grain Scorpion PT Gold. I became a man on a mission...to get the 30-inch heavy barreled fast-twist Hawken to shoot a saboted bullet with the accuracy of a modern in-line rifle at 100 yards...and I almost accomplished that. Several of the groups shot, with the traditional Hi-Lux scope on the rifle, loading black powder charges, were 2 to 2 1/2-inches center-to-center at that distance - and some of the best accuracy I had ever gotten with a traditional muzzleloader.
That winter (in February 2008), I made the move to Montana - and really did not get in any range time until mid spring. One of the first rifles I started shooting was the long Malcolm scoped .50 caliber Missouri River Hawken - shooting charges of FFFg and FFg Triple Seven. To achieve consistent spontaneous ignition, I had to install a musket nipple and switch to the larger and hotter CCI winged musket caps. With FFFg Triple Seven, 90 grains was the hottest charge I shot, while I went up to 110-grains of FFg Triple Seven.
So, if you've been looking for a very, very traditional looking muzzleloading big game hunting rig that's capable of producing modern in-line rifle accuracy...shooting modern loading components...be sure to check from time to time the October published article/report listings at the 2015-ARTICLES-REPORTS link at the top of this page. - Toby Bridges, NORTH AMERICAN MUZZLELOADER HUNTING
This Post Brought To You By...
Traditional Muzzleloader Hunting
This blog is made possible by Davide Pedersoli & Co., Dixie Gun Works, Traditions Firearms, Green Mountain Rifle Barrel Co., October Country, and Hodgdon/GOEX powders. The topics presented here will be devoted entirely to shooting and hunting with muzzleloading guns of pre- 1860's design.